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African Science. The theory of African Science has been undergoing systematization by the Calabar School of Philosophy (by J. Chimakonam). More


Calabar School of Philosophy (Nigeria). A philosophical movement aimed at promoting intercultural philosophical inquiry. See Ibuanyidanda.


Ethnophilosophy was developed in Africa in the 1960s though its origin can be traced back to a book by the Belgian missionary Placide Tempels on Bantu philosophy (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More


Houtondji, Paulin (Beninese philosopher). More to come


Ibuanyidanda [Complementarity] (Igbo)  is a philosophical movement in African founded at the University of Calabar, Nigeria. (by Innocent Asouzu). More


Njikoka Philosophy. "Integrative humanism."  Njikoka philosophy is an intercultural philosophical theory whose principal proponent is Godfrey O. Ozumba. It has been developed by members of the Calabar School of Philosophy (by Jonathan O. Chimakonam). More


Pan-Africanism One catalyst for the rapid and widespread development of Pan-Africanism was the colonization of the continent by European powers in the late nineteenth century (by TBB, to be extended). More




Bahm, Archie, American Philosopher  [1907-1996] . Bahm was the author of 21 books and countless articles, on a wide range of topics, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Yoga, world religions, value theory, axiology, epistemology, metaphysics, existentialism, comparative philosophy, Marxism, the nature of philosophy, ecology, teaching methods, the plight of indigenous peoples, and applied philosophy (by Richard McDonough) More

Hartshorne, Charles, American philosopher [1897-2000].  Hartshorne acknowledges many philosophical influences but his strongest single influence is clearly A.N. Whitehead. Hartshorne stated that “I was already almost a Buddhist without knowing it long before I read much about Buddhism” and later added that he was “more Buddhist than some Buddhists” (by Richard McDonough). More

Maslow, Abraham. Founder of “humanistic psychology” and author of Towards a Psychology of Being (by Richard McDonough) More

Mead, Margaret. In 1983, Derek Freeman argued that Mead had romanticized Samoan culture. M. Mead and interculturality (by Richard McDonough) More

Merton, Thomas. American spiritual leader (by Richard McDonough). More

Moby-Dick, the philosophy of. According to the microcosmic doctrine, every living organism is an image of the entire cosmos. One of the best ways to explore the true meaning of the novel is to explore its main characters (by Richard McDonough) More



Feminism (in the Arab region). Nisā’iyyah and niswiyyah are Arabic terms for feminism. Both are nouns that derive respectively from nisā’ and niswah which mean women.  (by Nesma Elsakaan) More

Feminism, Islamic. Islamic feminism is a faith-based commitment and field of research that critically engages with the Islamic tradition from a gender-egalitarian perspective. It is part of Muslim women and gender studies that have been developing over the last thirty years from within Islam. (by Nesma Elsakaan) More

Ḥila ﺣﻳﻟﺔ. Craftiness, cunning (Arab) (by Franck Martin). In French. In English

Huwiyya هوية identity, substance, essence, existence (by Ismail Lala) More   In French

Imām إمام designates a leader, in particular the leader of a religious group, but also the founders of Islamic law schools and leading theologians and intellectuals (by Catarina Belo) More

Madīna   مدينة . ‘Town’, ‘city’ or ‘state’, and the adjective ‘madanī’ means ‘urban’ or pertaining to civilization (by Catarina Belo), More

Al-Qāshānī, ‘Abd al-Razzāq. Principal expositor of the thought of the influential Sufi thinker, Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn ‘Arabī (by Ismail Lala) More

Qiyās قياس(Arabic) ‘Analogy’ or ‘syllogism’, and more broadly, ‘reasoning’. It implies the inference from the known to the unknown, allowing one to obtain new knowledge on the basis of previously existing knowledge (by Catarina Bello). More

Easter Europe



Backwardness (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

Besa (Albanian). Essential term meaning  "given word" (by Melsen Kafilaj) More


Blaga, Lucian, Romanian philosopher [1895-1961] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come


Crainic, Nichifor, Romanian philosopher [1889-1972] (by Keith Hitchins). More


Duric. Milos, Serbian philosopher [1892-1967] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come


Eastern Europe [as a philosophical concept] (by Julia Sushytska). More to come

Eliade, Mircea (1907-1986), Romanian historian  of religion and philosopher (by Richard McDonough). More


Historical Materialism (non-Marxian) (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come


Ionescu, Nae, Romanian philosopher [1888-1940] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come


Kolakowski, Leszek (Central Europe) (by Juliusz Iwanicki). More to come


Lvov-Warsaw School (Central European) (by Jan Woleński). More


Nowak, Leszek (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come


Popovic, Justin, Serbian philosopher [1894-1979] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come


Poznan School of Methodology (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come


Solidarity (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come


Trairism, Romanian variant of existentialism. (by Keith Hitchins). More to come


Yanev, Yanko, Bulgarian philosopher [1900-1944] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come






Dao, 道. Way or the way things are; ultimate reality or the ultimate. One primary, and non-mystical, understanding of dao in classical Chinese philosophy is that the dao is the way things are, no matter how a thinker or a school of thought understands the way things are and how he or she elaborates such an understanding (by Bo Mou). More

Daoism is as a set of historical traditions native to China that encompasses philosophical, religious, artistic, and bodily aspects.(by Matheus Costa) English and Portuguese  ALAF


De, 德. Virtue; manifestations of the dao. Generally speaking, in the Chinese tradition, the term ‘de’ means human moral virtue (by Bo Mou). More


Emptiness see kōng 空.

Genuine Pretending (Chinese) is an expression used by Paul D’Ambrosio and Hans-Georg Moeller to characterize the existential philosophy of the Daoist work Zhuangzi, or its take on identity. Moeller and D’Ambrosio use the notion to argue against modern interpretations of the Zhuangzi as a philosophy of “authenticity” (by Hans-Georg Moeller). More


He, 和 (諧). Harmony/harmonious; peace; concord. He embodies both the ancient Chinese thinkers’ (descriptive) understanding of the fundamental structure of the universe (including the human society) and it delivers their (prescriptive) expectation for the ideal situation of the human society (harmonious brotherhood) (by Bo Mou). More


kōng 空 (emptiness). More to come


Nei-sheng-wai-wang, 內聖外王. Inner sageliness and outer kingliness (by Bo Mou). More


Nothingness, 无 wu. More to come


Qi (ch’i), 氣. The term ‘qi’ in classical Chinese philosophy means a kind of vital-breath-like matter-energy that is the most fundamental ‘stuff’ of everything. Qi can be light (spirits) or dense (material things) (by Bo Mou).


Ren (jen), 仁 (Chinese). Humanity, human heartedness). The Confucian conception of ren was suggested by Confucius in the Lun-Yü and has occupied the central position in Confucian philosophy (by Bo Mou). More

Shadowplay, ying xi, 影戏 (Chinese) is a concept in Chinese film aesthetics that submits form to content (by TBB). More


Tian-ren-he-yi, 天人合一 (Chinese). Unity of heaven and the human (by Bo Mou). More


Wen, 文 is an untranslatable term meaning “pattern,” “structure,” “writing,” and “literature” (by TBB). More


Wu, 無, 无 see Nothingness.


Wu-wei, 無為. Non-action. A seemingly paradoxical slogan in Lao Zi’s Dao-De-Jing the literal sense of which is non-action (by Bo Mou). More


Ying-xi, 影戏 see Shadowplay.


Yin-yang, 陰陽. In its broad sense, the term ‘yin-yang’ means the unity of two mutually-opposed but correlative and complementary forces existing within anything in the universe (by Bo Mou). More


You, 有 versus wu, 無, 无. Being versus non-being (by Bo Mou). More

Xinzhai 心齋, "Fasting of the Heart" (Chinese).  The arguably most important account of Zhuangzi’s practical approach to the cultivation of virtue. It is related to the dissolution of the self (by ZHANG Rongkun) More


Heka 𓄣𓄣  is ancient Egyptian magic. It is a  ritual language that followed prescribed formulae and that was uttered by someone of moral authority was said to be heka in ancient Egyptian liturgical contexts (by Kevin DeLapp) More

Ib 𓄣 means heart-mind. It refers to an ancient Egyptian conception of a person’s moral character  (by Kevin DeLapp) More

Maat 𓐙𓏏𓁦 (truth/justice) refers to an ancient Egyptian normative view of reality, encompassing how things had originally been ordained and also how they were to be again (by Kevin DeLapp) More

West Europe

EUROPE (Western)

Alitheia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis) More to come

Aion, αἰών (Ancient Greek). Eternity, lifetime, age, generation (by Giannis Stamatellos). More

Andreia, ἀνδρεία (Ancient Greek) Fortitude, courage. A fundamental human virtue (ἀρετή) during the Archaic and Classical periods of Greek history (by Andrei Zavaliy) More


Buber, Martin: I and Though (Ich und Du, 1923) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

Albert Camus (1913-1960). French-Algerian writer and existentialist philosopher (by Richard McDonough) More


Chronos (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come


Eleftheria (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Enylon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come


Ethnofuturism is an aesthetic movement initiated by the Finno-Ugric philosophers Uku Masing (Estonian) and the Komi national K. F. Zhakov (by Kari Sallamaa). More


Euthanasia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come


Hegel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come


Heidegger, Martin [and intercultural philosophy] (by Edward McDougall) More


Herausdrehen. Heideggerian term meaning 'to twist free of', 'to extricate oneself from', 'turning forth', 'turning-out-of'' in the context of the overcoming of metaphysics (by TBB). More

Huxley, Aldous, by Richard McDonough. More


Jaspers, Karl [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come


Kant, Immanuel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Laing. R.D. (1927-1989) Existentialist Psychiatrist (by Richard McDonough) More


Malebranche, Nicolas: Dialogue between a Christian Philosopher and a Chinese Philosopher on the Existence and Nature of God (Entretien d'un philosophe chrétien et d'un philosophe chinois sur l'existence et la nature de dieu, 1708) (by Gerald Citpriani). More


Marcel, Gabriel (French philosopher) (by Gerald Citpriani) More 


Pantahikineton (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come


Pathi (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come


Physiki theologia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come


Psyche (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come


Ricoeur, Paul (by Gerald Cipriani). More

Ruyer, Raymond (by Tano Posteraro) More

Spengler, Oswald (German historian and philosopher). In his is his Decline of the West Spengler argues that the West has exhausted its creative energies. The central idea of Decline of the West is that each culture is like an organism animated by a fundamental “world-feeling” (of how the world fundamentally is) that gets expressed in all of its cultural products (by Richard McDonough). More


Thermogonon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Timaeus (Plato) Plato’s view that the cosmos is the perfect animal contrasts with the alternative organic worldview in some Asian and native American cosmogonies that take the plant as the cosmic organism (by Richard McDonough). More 


Todorov, Tzvetan [and Intercultural Philosophy] (by Gerald Cipriani) More


Todorov, Tzvetan: On Human Diversity: Nationalism, Racism, and Exotism in French Thought (Nous et les autres, La reflexion française sur la diversité humaine, 1989) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come


Vocabulaire européen des philosophies : Dictionnaire des intraduisibles (Editor: Barbara Cassin) (by TBB) More


Yli (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come




Aadhaara, a-spatial location (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come


Aksara, "unwavering" (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come


Bhaava, punctual form (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come


Dharma धर्म is derived from the root dhr, to support, to uphold, to establish (by Arianne Conty). More

Dhyāna ध्यान  (Indian) is a Sanskrit word translated as “meditation” or “concentration.” (by Jarrod Hyam) More 

Ksana, a-temporal duration (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

Nāgārjuna (Indian philosopher, c. 150-250 AD)  argues that all dharmas, all things or, more specifically, all the elements of which things are composed, are “empty” (by Lucas N. Machado) English and Portuguese  ALAF


Reformthinking (Indian). (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come


Śūnyatā (शून्यता), emptiness, voidness, vacuity, spaciousness (by Arianne Conty). More 






Aida [ajidə]. Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro (1889–1960) interpreted human beings as determined not by the solipsistic structure of the modern cogito but by a “betweenness” that he called aidagara (by TBB). More


Arigatai (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come


Awai (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come


Basho, 場所. Central philosophical term developed by Nishida Kitarô (1870-1945). Literally, basho means “place.” Nishida’s basho is a kind of “negative space” in which things do not simply “exist” but in which they are “local”, i.e. in which they “are” in a concrete way (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More


Basho no ronri, 場所の論理 (The Logic of Place) is a fundamental theme in the philosophy of Nishida Kitaro (by Augustin Berque). More


Being [Japanese] see yu, soku.


Body [Japanese concept of] see shintai, shutai.


Emptiness see  kū 空.


Fudo, 風土. In his book Fudo (1935), Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro provided an account of cultural uniqueness based on the concept of fudosei (climaticity). (by Augustin Berque). More


History [according to Nishida Kitaro] see rekishi.


Iki, 粋 is an aesthetic notion from the late Edo époque signifying “elegance,” “dapper,” or “chic” (by TBB). More


Jizen-keiken, 自全経験 means “self-sufficient and independent experience." The term has been coined by Motora Yūjirō (by Takeshi Morisato). More


Kankyo, 環境 space (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

KIMURA Motomori 木村素衞 (1895-1946). Japanese philosopher (by TAMADA Ryūtarō). More


Kire, 切れ literally means “cut,” or “to cut off.” Kire is also strongly linked to the phenomena of iki and ma. (by TBB). More


kū 空 (emptiness) More to come


Ma, 間, same Chinese character as aida. Signifies “interval in time and space” suggesting the idea of a non-geometrical (felt-experienced as opposed to calculated- measured) space dependent on cultural symbolisms (by TBB). More


Mu, 無 see Nothingness.

Nishida Kitaro (Japanese philosopher) [and Intercultural Philosophy]. More to come


Nishida Kitaro: I and Thou (私と汝 Watakushi to Nanji, 1932) (by TBB). More


Nothingness, 無 mu. More to come


Nothingness [Nishida Kitaro] (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come


Pan-Asianism represented a movement of Asian cooperation asking for the liberation of all occupied parts of Asia (by TBB). More


Rekishi [for Nishida Kitaro], 歴史 (Japanese), history (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come


Shintai, 身体 body (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come


Shinto (Japanese). The term ‘Shinto’ is derived from the Chinese ‘神道 (shen dao)’, meaning ‘The Way of the Gods (kami)’, originally used to distinguish Shinto from Buddhism (by Edward McDougall). More


Shugo, 主語  (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come


Shukan, 主観  (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come


Shutai, 主体 (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come


Soku, 即 is/is not (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come


Space [Japanese concepts of] see kankyo, basho, ma, mesologics.


Watsuji, Testsuro see mesologics.


Yu, 有 Being (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come





Han, 한 (Korean), 恨 (Chinese).  Han is a slippery and subtle term that, depending on context, denotes everything from "resentment" and "lamentation" to "unfulfilled desire" and "resignation." (by Hye Seung CHUNG). More


Muism, Mu-Gyo, 巫敎 indicates Korean indigenous religion, often called Korean shamanism (by Heisook Kim). More

Ouri,  우리 (Korean) “Presubjective self” (by Hye Young Kim). More


Shin-myung, 神明 is pronounced as "shen ming" in Chinese and "shin myung" in Korean. Shin means spirit or god and myung means clear understanding (by Heisook Kim). More

south america



All-Unity, Всеединство, vseyedinstvo (Russian). Thoughts about All-Unity, often discussed in proximity with the quest for harmony of faith and reason, are not simply philosophical protests against the ecclesiastical “egoism” of Protestants who are said to affirm a “multitude without unity,” but most often represent direct attempts to overcome the entire intellectual machine of Western metaphysics by Eastern Orthodox means (by T. Botz-Bornstein). More


Bakhtin, Mikhail [and Intercultural Philosophy]  (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come


Bakhtin, Mikhail: The Dialogic Imagination (1930) (by Gerald Citpriani). More to come


Borderlands (by Julia Sushytska) More to come


Carnivalesque (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More


Convergence see mestorazvitie.


Cosmism, космизм (Russian). A metaphysical and religious outlook, originated in the 19th century Russia, which presents a unique blend of futuristic speculations, materialistic science, religious mysticism and esoteric practices (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Eurasianism emerged in 1921 and was based on the observations of a “dying West” and a “rising East” (by TBB). More


Filosofia. The difference between philosophy and filosofia is roughly analogous to the difference between a scholarly symposium and a Platonic symposium: the participants in the latter not only correctly discuss ideas but “totally” give themselves over to them, with all their body, soul and mind. (by Mikhail Epstein). More


Heteroglossia (according to Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More


Hutsul Mythology (by Julia Sushytska ) More to come


Imyaslavie, имяславие. Literally: “glorification of the name” (alternatively: “worshipping the name"); also referred to as onomatodoxy. A philosophical/religious teaching of the beginning of 20th century - associated, among others, with Losev, Lossky, Bulgakov (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Inakomislyashij, инакомыслящий (Russian) literally - the one who thinks differently, a non-conformist. Standard term for various dissidents in 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Intelligentsia. The word “intelligentsia” itself, translated from the Latin, means “speculation [umozrenie]”, “the mind’s ability to generalize and systematize ideas” (by Mikhail Epstein). More


Khandra. Spleen, boredom, longing. Khandra is a specifically Russian ailment, a problem of ethnic patho-psychology (by Mikhail Epstein). More


Mamardashvili, Merab (by Julia Sushytska). More to come


Mestorazvitie, месторазвитие “space-development.” The geographer Petr N. Savitzky (1895-1968) introduces the term as a theoreti­cal notion through which socio-historical components can be seen as integral parts of geographical conditions.The individual, not unlike the personality, is supposed to appear as a “geographical individual” (by TBB). More


Mir, мир (Russian). Historically, ‘mir’ was one of the terms used to refer to an organized and self-sufficient peasant community (obschina, община) in Russia. (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Narodnost’ (Russian) encompasses “spirit of the people,” “national character” and “folk wisdom” and is an important concept in Russian intellectual history (Two entries by Mikhail Epstein and S. Vladiv-Glover). More


Neprotivlenie, непротивление. In Russian cultural tradition this moral category is primarily associated with Leo Tolstoy’s (1828-1910) philosophical and religious writings at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries, and the subsequent movement of the Tolstoyans. (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Nihilism, nigilism, нигилизм (Russian) is a very important concept in 19th century intellectual life, cf. Turgenev's Fathers and Sons (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Nostalgia (by Julia Sushytska). More to come


Nothingness [Merab Mamardashvili] (Russian) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More to come


Ochevidnost', очевидность. Literally: “obviousness”, “something observed with one’s own eyes”, “insight”. One of the central epistemological categories in the religious philosophy of Ivan Ilyin (1883-1954), a major 20th century Russian thinker (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Pan-Slavism represents a mixture of nationalist and supra-nationalist elements developed by non-Russian Slavs who felt the need for cooperation. It had no link whatsoever with Great Russian aspirations (by TBB). More


Passionarnost’, пассионарность. A central concept in the historical, ethnological and anthropological studies of Lev N. Gumilev (1912-1992), a polymath Russian thinker and a major historian of the 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Polyphony (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More


Samobytnost', самобытность. Literally: “self-being”; the term also connotes the ideas of self-sufficiency, independence, authenticity and singularity (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Slavyanofilstvo, славянофильство, Slavophilism. Also referred to as slavofilia (from Greek “love of Slavs”) (by Andrei Zavaliy and TBB). More


Sobornost’ (Russian). The untranslatable term can be rendered into English as “conciliarity” supposed to balance the relationship between authority and freedom (by TBB). More


Space [Russian concepts of] see mestorazvitie, obshestvennost.


Svoboda, свобода. Literally: "Freedom." See volya.


Svoevolie, своеволие. Literally: “showing or imposing one’s own will”, “obstinacy” (by Andrei  Zavaliy). More


Volya, воля. Literally: "freedom," "liberty" (by Andrei Zavaliy). More


Vseyedinstvo see All-Unity


Zapadnichestvo, западничество (Russian) 'westerners', 19th century distinctions in Russian culture (by Andrei Zavaliy). More



Andrade, Oswald de (Brazilian author, 1890–1954) see Anthropophagy   ALAF

Anthropophagy is the motto of a cultural movement articulated in the end of the 1920’s in Brazil (by Luis Garcia) English and Portuguese

Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986) and the “Borges Paradox” (by Richard McDonough) More


Buen vivir (good life) in South American thought, in particular as occurent in the thought of the Kichwa, Aymaras, and Guarani people, is a authentic way of life involved by ecological orientation (by Thiago Ledo) English and Portuguese   ALAF



Mercado, Leonardo N. (Filipino philosopher) Mercado gained his prominence as pioneer of Filipino philosophy when he published his book in 1974, entitled Elements of Filipino Philosophy (by Edgardo B. Garnace). More



Reformthinking. (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come





Authentic. The difference between authentic and genuine (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein) More


Analytic and Continental Philosophy. The difference between continental and analytic philosophy can appear obvious when looking from afar. It is popular to link analytic philosophy to logic and continental philosophy to models of reasoning that are incompatible with logic, which is inaccurate. (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein) More

Comparative Philosophy. Together with the more recent Intercultural Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy is the only philosophical branch eager to undertake a critical evaluation of World Philosophy on a comparative basis (by TBB). More


Critical Regionalism. The term was introduced in 1981 by the architects Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre in their article “The Grid and the Pathway” and in 1983 Kenneth Frampton authored an article on the same subject (by TBB). More


Cross-cultural. A term initially used in the social sciences to refer to comparative studies of cultural differences and similarities. The usage of the term has broadened to mean any study or practice involving different cultural approaches. Strictly speaking, what is cross-cultural should designate what is at the crossroad of different cultures. Useful link: Cross-Cultural Research (by Gerald Cipriani).


Cultural. What relates to culture in the sense of a particular manifestation of human achievement in the arts, languages, forms of expression (whether secular or religious), and customs of all kinds Useful link: UNESCO. (By Gerald Cipriani). See also intercultural; cross-cultural; multicultural; transcultural; subcultural; pre-cultural; post-cultural.


Culturality [culturalité] ( by Claude-Raphaël Samama). More (in French)


Dialogue. A particular mode of relationship between human beings or between human beings and their place, which can be their natural environment, history, tradition, culture, the present world, or other communities (by Gerald Cipriani). More


Dialetical (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

Emergentism is usually traced in the West to the 19th century British philosophers, Bain, Lewes and Mill, and is traditionally understood as an alternative to reductionism (by Richard McDonough). More


Emptiness (general Asian) see Śūnyatā.


Human Rights (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Management, Philosophy of. Management itself can be seen as a philosophy in action. If one is to live, one is to act. If one is to act, one is to choose. Although no criterion exists to decide which is superior, to paraphrase Kurt Lewin, 'there is nothing as practical as a good philosophy' (by Jean-Etienne Joullié). More

Mesologics is the study of milieux (of ambient worlds). The term is derived from the Greek meson (middle, centre, half, medium) (by Augustin Berque). More


Multicultural (by Gerald Cipriani). A community that is multicultural is culturally diverse. Cultural multiplicity does not necessarily involve interactions or crossovers between the various cultures that constitute the community in question.


Naturalism (from an intercultural perspective). Naturalism refers to our stance about how to construct knowledge about nature (by Frederik Moreira dos Santos). More    ALAF

Organic (by TBB). Historically, the scope of philosophical reflections on the organic has been broad because the organic addresses universal and individual ways of interpreting the world order and of how people should live within that world order. The organic concerns ethics, aesthetics, and religion. More


Polyphony (Bakhtin). More to come


Post-cultural (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come


Pre-cultural. Beside the field of biology, the term can be used either to denote activities that took place chronologically before cultures became identifiable in the history of humanity, or else to denote any human activities that are not yet culturally recognizable (by Gerald Cipriani). More


Subcultural. Subcultural practices, values, and perceptions are defined with regard to what is considered to be mainstream culture. A subcultural group is very often thought to be below, borderline, abnormal, or eccentric by the dominant culture (by Gerald Cipriani).

Thought There is “French thought” and there is “French philosophy.” What is the difference? Why is there no “English thought?” (by T. Botz-Bornstein) More

Transcultural.  A term used to denote practices, values, and perceptions that go across or beyond established cultural boundaries and identities. A transcultural vision may seek common grounds between cultural particularities and differences. Transculturalism is more than the arbitrary combination of several cultures but it can be defined as "seeing oneself in the other" (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More


World Philosophy. Many of us know the names of the classics of some faraway countries and some of us have even read them (by TBB). More

South Asia
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