Concepts    Schools and Movements    Philosophers    Books 

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A

 

Aadhaara (Indian), a-spatial location (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

 

Aida [ajidə] (Japanese). Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro (1889–1960) interpreted human beings as determined not by the solipsistic structure of the modern cogito but by a “betweenness” that he called aidagara (by TBB). More. See also mesologics, mesology

 

African Science. The theory of African Science has been undergoing systematization by the Calabar School of Philosophy (by J. Chimakonam). More

 

All-Unity, Всеединство, vseyedinstvo (Russian). Thoughts about All-Unity, often discussed in proximity with the quest for harmony of faith and reason, are not simply philosophical protests against the ecclesiastical “egoism” of Protestants who are said to affirm a “multitude without unity,” but most often represent direct attempts to overcome the entire intellectual machine of Western metaphysics by Eastern Orthodox means (by TBB). More

 

Aksara (Indian), "unwavering" (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

 

Alitheia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Arigatai (Japanese), (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

 

Awai (Japanese), (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

 

 

B

 

Backwardness (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

 

Bakhtin, Mikhail [and Intercultural Philosophy]  (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

 

Bakhtin, Mikhail: The Dialogic Imagination (1930) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

 

Basho 場所 (Japanese). Central philosophical term developed by Nishida Kitarô (1870-1945). Literally, basho means “place.” Nishida’s basho is a kind of “negative space” in which things do not simply “exist” but in which they are “local”, i.e. in which they “are” in a concrete way (by TBB). More

 

Basho no ronri, 場所の論理 (The Logic of Place) is a fundamental theme in the philosophy of Nishida Kitaro (by Augustin Berque). More

 

Being [Japanese] see yu, soku.

 

Bhaava (Indian), punctual form (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

 

Blaga, Lucian, Romanian philosopher [1895-1961] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

 

Body [Japanese concept of] see shintai, shutai.

 

Borderlands (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska) More to come

 

Buber, Martin: I and Though (Ich und Du, 1923) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

 

 

C

 

Calabar School of Philosophy (Nigeria). A philosophical movement aimed at promoting intercultural philosophical inquiry. See Ibuanyidanda.

 

Carnivalesque (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More

 

Comparative Philosophy. Together with the more recent Intercultural Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy is the only philosophical branch eager to undertake a critical evaluation of World Philosophy on a comparative basis (by TBB). More

 

Convergence see mestorazvitie.

 

Cosmism, космизм (Russian). A metaphysical and religious outlook, originated in the 19th century Russia, which presents a unique blend of futuristic speculations, materialistic science, religious mysticism and esoteric practices (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Crainic, Nichifor, Romanian philosopher [1889-1972] (by Keith Hitchins). More

 

Critical Regionalism. The term was introduced in 1981 by the architects Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre in their article “The Grid and the Pathway” and in 1983 Kenneth Frampton authored an article on the same subject (by TBB). More

 

Chronos (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Cross-cultural. A term initially used in the social sciences to refer to comparative studies of cultural differences and similarities. The usage of the term has broadened to mean any study or practice involving different cultural approaches. Strictly speaking, what is cross-cultural should designate what is at the crossroad of different cultures. Useful link: Cross-Cultural Research (by Gerald Cipriani).

 

Cultural. What relates to culture in the sense of a particular manifestation of human achievement in the arts, languages, forms of expression (whether secular or religious), and customs of all kinds. Useful link: UNESCO. (By Gerald Cipriani). See also intercultural; cross-cultural; culturality; multicultural; transcultural; subcultural; pre-cultural; post-cultural.

 

Culturality [culturalité] ( by Claude-Raphaël Samama). More (in French)

 

 

D

 

Dao, 道 (Chinese). Way or the way things are; ultimate reality or the ultimate.One primary, and non-mystical, understanding of dao in classical Chinese philosophy is that the dao is the way things are, no matter how a thinker or a school of thought understands the way things are and how he or she elaborates such an understanding (by Bo Mou). More

 

De, 德 (Chinese). Virtue; manifestations of the dao. Generally speaking, in the Chinese tradition, the term ‘de’ means human moral virtue (by Bo Mou). More

 

Dharma धर्म (Indian) is derived from the root dhr, to support, to uphold, to establish (by Arianne Conty). More

 

Dialogue. A particular mode of relationship between human beings or between human beings and their place, which can be their natural environment, history, tradition, culture, the present world, or other communities (by Gerald Cipriani) More


Dialetical. (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

 

Duric, Milos, Serbian philosopher [1892-1967] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

Dhyāna ध्यान  (Indian) is a Sanskrit word translated as “meditation” or “concentration.” (by Jarrod Hyam) More 

 

 
 
 
 
 

E

Eastern Europe [as a philosophical concept] (by Julia Sushytska) More to come

 

Eleftheria, Ελευθερία (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Emptiness (general Asian) see Śūnyatā.

 

Emptiness (Japanese) see  kū 空.

 

Emptiness (Chinese) see kōng 空.

 

Enylon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine). (By Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Ethnofuturism is an aesthetic movement initiated by the Finno-Ugric philosophers Uku Masing (Estonian) and the Komi national K. F. Zhakov (by Kari Sallamaa). More

 

Ethnophilosophy was developed in Africa in the 1960s though its origin can be traced back to a book by the Belgian missionary Placide Tempels on Bantu philosophy (by TBB). More.

 

Eurasianism emerged in 1921 and was based on the observations of a “dying West” and a “rising East” (by TBB). More

 

Euthanasia, Ευθανασία (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Example. The formal qualities of the “example” lend themselves to intercultural interpretation (by Mark Keitges). More to come

 

Experience see jizen keiken.

 

 

F

Filosofia (Russian). The difference between philosophy and filosofia is roughly analogous to the difference between a scholarly symposium and a Platonic symposium: the participants in the latter not only correctly discuss ideas but “totally” give themselves over to them, with all their body, soul and mind. (by Mikhail Epstein). More

 

Fudo, 風土 (Japanese). In his book Fudo (1935), Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro provided an account of cultural uniqueness based on the concept of fudosei (climaticity). (by Augustin Berque). More. See also mesologics.

 

 

H

Han 한 (Korean), (Chinese).  Han is a slippery and subtle term that, depending on context, denotes everything from "resentment" and "lamentation" to "unfulfilled desire" and "resignation" (by Hye Seung CHUNG). More

 

He, 和 (諧) (Chinese). Harmony/harmonious; peace; concord. He embodies both the ancient Chinese thinkers’ (descriptive) understanding of the fundamental structure of the universe (including the human society) and it delivers their (prescriptive) expectation for the ideal situation of the human society (harmonious brotherhood) (by Bo Mou). More

 

Hegel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

 

Heidegger, Martin [and intercultural philosophy] (by Edward McDougall) More

 

Herausdrehen. Heideggerian term meaning 'to twist free of', 'to extricate oneself from', 'turning forth', 'turning-out-of'' in the context of the overcoming of metaphysics (by TBB). More

 

Heteroglossia (according to Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More

 

Hila. Craftiness, cunning (Arab) (by Franck Martin). More to come

 

History [according to Nishida Kitaro] see rekishi.

 

Historical Materialism [non-Marxian] (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come

 

Houtondji, Paulin (Beninese philosopher). More to come

 

Human Rights (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

 

Hutsul Mythology (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska ). More to come

I

Ibuanyidanda [Complementarity] (Igbo, African) is a philosophical movement in African founded at the University of Calabar, Nigeria. (by Innocent Asouzu). More

 

Iki ,粋 (Japanese) is an aesthetic notion from the late Edo époque signifying “elegance,” “dapper,” or “chic” (by TBB). More

 

Imaginary Logic, Воображаемая логикаvoobrazhaemaja logika (Russian). Term coined by N.A. Vasil'ev in 1911. More to come

 

Imyaslavie, имяславие (Russian). Literally: “glorification of the name” (alternatively: “worshipping the name"); also referred to as onomatodoxy. A philosophical/religious teaching of the beginning of 20th century - associated, among others, with Losev, Lossky, Bulgakov (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Inakomislyashij, инакомыслящий (Russian) literally - the one who thinks differently, a non-conformist. Standard term for various dissidents in 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Integrative Humanism (African) see Njikoka Philosophy.

 

Intelligentsia (Russian). The word “intelligentsia” itself, translated from the Latin, means “speculation [umozrenie]”, “the mind’s ability to generalize and systematize ideas” (by Mikhail Epstein). More

 

Intercultural (by Gerald Cipriani). What involves interactions between different cultures. Intercultural perception, understanding, or interpretation can also refer to culture-specific awareness in the light of other cultures.  Useful Link: Society of Intercultural Philosophy

 

Intercultural Philosophy see Comparative Philosophy.

 

Ionescu, Nae, Romanian philosopher [1888-1940] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

 

 

J

Jaspers, Karl [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

 

Jizen-keiken, 自全経験 (Japanese) means “self-sufficient and independent experience." The term has been coined by Motora Yūjirō (by Takeshi Morisato). More
 

 

K

Kankyo, 環境 (Japanese) "space" (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

 

Kant, Immanuel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

 

Khandra, хандра (Russian). Spleen, boredom, longing. Khandra is a specifically Russian ailment, a problem of ethnic patho-psychology (by Mikhail Epstein). More

 

Kire, 切れ (Japanese) literally means “cut,” or “to cut off.” Kire is also strongly linked to the phenomena of iki and ma. (by TBB). More

 

Kolakowski, Leszek (Central Europe) (by Juliusz Iwanicki). More to come

 

Ksana (Indian), a-temporal duration (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

 

kū 空, emptiness (Japanese). More to come

 

kōng 空, emptiness (Chinese). More to come

 

 

L

Lvov-Warsaw School (Central European) (by Jan Wolenski). More to come

 

 

M

Ma, 間 (Japanese), same Chinese character as aida (Japanese). Signifies “interval in time and space” suggesting the idea of a non-geometrical (felt-experienced as opposed to calculated- measured) space dependent on cultural symbolisms (by TBB). More

 

Malebranche, Nicolas: Dialogue between a Christian Philosopher and a Chinese Philosopher on the Existence and Nature of God (Entretien d'un philosophe chrétien et d'un philosophe chinois sur l'existence et la nature de dieu, 1708) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

 

Mamardashvili, Merab (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska). More to come

 

Marcel, Gabriel: Creative Fidelity (Du refus à  l'invocation, 1940) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

 

Mesologics, mesology (as opposed to ecology) is the study of milieux (of ambient worlds). The term is derived from the Greek meson (middle, centre, half, medium) (by Augustin Berque). More

 

Mestorazvitie, месторазвитие (Russian) “space-development” or "development-place." The geographer Petr N. Savitzky (1895-1968) introduces the term as a theoreti­cal notion through which socio-historical components can be seen as integral parts of geographical conditions. (by TBB). More

 

Mir, мир (Russian) (by Andrei Zavaliy). More to come

 

Mu, 無 (Japanese) see Nothingness.

 

Muism, Mu-Gyo, 巫敎 (Korean) indicates Korean indigenous religion, often called Korean shamanism (by Heisook Kim). More

 

Multicultural (by Gerald Cipriani). A community that is multicultural is culturally diverse. Cultural multiplicity does not necessarily involve interactions or crossovers between the various cultures that constitute the community in question.

 
 
 
 
 

N

Narodnost’ (Russian) encompasses “spirit of the people,” “national character” and “folk wisdom” and is an important concept in Russian intellectual history. (Two entries by Mikhail Epstein and S. Vladiv-Glover). More

 

Nei-sheng-wai-wang, 內聖外王 (Chinese). Inner sageliness and outer kingliness (by Bo Mou). More

 

Neprotivlenie, непротивление (Russian). In Russian cultural tradition this moral category is primarily associated with Leo Tolstoy’s (1828-1910) philosophical and religious writings at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries, and the subsequent movement of the Tolstoyans. (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Nihilism, нигилизм, nigilism (Russian) is a very important concept in 19th century intellectual life, cf. Turgenev's Fathers and Sons (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Nishida Kitaro (Japanese philosopher) [and Intercultural Philosophy]. More to come

 

Nishida Kitaro: I and Thou (私と汝 Watakushi to Nanji, 1932) (by TBB). More

 

Njikoka Philosophy (African). "Integrative humanism." Njikoka philosophy is an intercultural philosophical theory whose principal proponent is Godfrey O. Ozumba. It has been developed by members of the Calabar School of Philosophy (by Jonathan O. Chimakonam). More

 

Nostalgia (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska). More to come

 

Nothingness (Asian general). (by Arianne Conty) More to come. See also Śūnyatā,  and kōng .

 

Nothingness, 無, mu (Japanese). More to come

 

Nothingness, 无, wu (Chinese). More to come

 

Nothingness [Nishida Kitaro] (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

 

Nothingness [Merab Mamardashvili] (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More to come

 

Nowak, Leszek (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come

 

 

O

Ochevidnost', очевидность (Russian) Literally: “obviousness”, “something observed with one’s own eyes”, “insight”. One of the central epistemological categories in the religious philosophy of Ivan Ilyin (1883-1954), a major 20th century Russian thinker (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Organic (by TBB). Historically, the scope of philosophical reflections on the organic has been broad because the organic addresses universal and individual ways of interpreting the world order and of how people should live within that world order. The organic concerns ethics, aesthetics, and religion. More

 

 

P

Pan-Asianism represented a movement of Asian cooperation asking for the liberation of all occupied parts of Asia (by TBB). More

 

Pan-Slavism represents a mixture of nationalist and supra-nationalist elements developed by non-Russian Slavs who felt the need for cooperation. It had no link whatsoever with Great Russian aspirations (by TBB). More

 

Pan-Africanism. One catalyst for the rapid and widespread development of Pan-Africanism was the colonization of the continent by European powers in the late nineteenth century (by TBB, to be extended). More

 

Pantahikineton (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Passionarnost’, пассионарность (Russian) A central concept in the historical, ethnological and anthropological studies of Lev N. Gumilev (1912-1992), a polymath Russian thinker and a major historian of the 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Pathi (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Physiki theologia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Polylog (Franz Martin Wimmer). More to come

 

Polyphony (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More

 

Popovic, Justin, Serbian philosopher [1894-1979] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

 

Post-cultural (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

 

Poznan School of Methodology (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come

 

Pre-cultural. Beside the field of biology, the term can be used either to denote activities that took place chronologically before cultures became identifiable in the history of humanity, or else to denote any human activities that are not yet culturally recognizable (by Gerald Cipriani). More

 

Psyche (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

 

Q

Qi (ch’i) 氣. (Chinese) The term ‘qi’ in classical Chinese philosophy means a kind of vital-breath-like matter-energy that is the most fundamental ‘stuff’ of everything. Qi can be light (spirits) or dense (material things) (by Bo Mou).

R

Reformthinking (Indian). (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

 

Reformthinking (Turkish). (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

 

Rekishi [for Nishida Kitaro] 歴史 (Japanese), history (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

 

Ren (jen) 仁 (Chinese). Humanity, human heartedness). The Confucian conception of ren was suggested by Confucius in the Lun-Yü and has occupied the central position in Confucian philosophy (by Bo Mou). More

 

Ricoeur, Paul: Oneself as Another (Soi-meme comme un autre, 1990) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

 

 

S

Samobytnost', самобытность (Russian). Literally: “self-being”; the term also connotes the ideas of self-sufficiency, independence, authenticity and singularity (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Shadowplay see ying xi.

 

Shin-myung, 神明 (Korean) is pronounced as "shen ming" in Chinese and "shin myung" in Korean. Shin means spirit or god and myung means clear understanding (by Heisook Kim). More

 

Shintai, 身体 (Japanese) body (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

 

Shinto (Japanese). The term ‘Shinto’ is derived from the Chinese ‘神道 (shen dao)’, meaning ‘The Way of the Gods (kami)’, originally used to distinguish Shinto from Buddhism (by Edward McDougall). More

 

Shugo, 主語 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

 

Shukan, 主観 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

 

Shutai, 主体 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

 

Slavyanofilstvo, славянофильство, Slavophilism (Russian). Also referred to as slavofilia (from Greek “love of Slavs”) (by Andrei Zavaliy and TBB). More

 

Sobornost’ (Russian). The untranslatable term can be rendered into English as “conciliarity” supposed to balance the relationship between authority and freedom (by TBB). More

 

Soku, 即 (Japanese), is/is not (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

 

Solidarity (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

 

Space [Japanese concepts of] see kankyo, basho, ma, mesologics.

 

Space [Russian concepts of] see mestorazvitie, obshestvennost.

 

Subcultural, Subcultural practices, values, and perceptions are defined with regard to what is considered to be mainstream culture. A subcultural group is very often thought to be below, borderline, abnormal, or eccentric by the dominant culture (by Gerald Cipriani).

 

Śūnyatā (शून्यता), emptiness, voidness, vacuity, spaciousness (by Arianne Conty). More 

 

Svoboda, свобода (Russian). Literally: "Freedom." See volya.

 

Svoevolie, своеволие (Russian). Literally: “showing or imposing one’s own will”, “obstinacy” (by Andrei  Zavaliy). More

 

 

T

Thermogonon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Tian-ren-he-yi, 天人合一 (Chinese). Unity of heaven and the human (by Bo Mou). More

 

Todorov, Tzvetan [and Intercultural Philosophy] (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

 

Todorov, Tzvetan: On Human Diversity: Nationalism, Racism, and Exotism in French Thought (Nous et les autres, La reflexion française sur la diversité humaine, 1989) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

 

Transcultural.  A term used to denote practices, values, and perceptions that go across or beyond established cultural boundaries and identities. A transcultural vision may seek common grounds between cultural particularities and differences. Transculturalism is more than the arbitrary combination of several cultures but it can be defined as "seeing oneself in the other" (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More

 

Trairism, Romanian variant of existentialism (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

 

 

V

Vocabulaire européen des philosophies : Dictionnaire des intraduisibles (editor: Barbara Cassin) (by TBB) More

 

Volya, воля (Russian). Literally: "freedom," "liberty" (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

Voobrazhaemaja logika, Воображаемая логика (Russian) see Imaginary Logic.

 

Vseyedinstvo see All-Unity.

 

 

W

Watsuji, Testsuro see fudo, mesologics.

 

Wen, 文 (Chinese) is an untranslatable term meaning “pattern,” “structure,” “writing,” and “literature” (by TBB). More

 

World Philosophy. Many of us know the names of the classics of some faraway countries and some of us have even read them (by TBB). More

 

Wu, 無, 无 (Chinese) see Nothingness.

 

Wu-wei, 無為. (Chinese) Non-action. A seemingly paradoxical slogan in Lao Zi’s Dao-De-Jing the literal sense of which is non-action (by Bo Mou). More

 

 

Y

Yanev, Yanko, Bulgarian philosopher [1900-1944] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

 

Ying-xi, 影戏 (Chinese). Central concept in Chinese film studies through which the Chinese understand film (by TBB). More

 

Yin-yang, 陰陽 (Chinese). In its broad sense, the term ‘yin-yang’ means the unity of two mutually-opposed but correlative and complementary forces existing within anything in the universe (by Bo Mou). More

 

Yli (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

You, 有 versus wu, 無, 无 (Chinese). Being versus non-being (by Bo Mou). More

 

Yu, 有 (Japanese), Being (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

 

 

Z

Zapadnichestvo, западничество (Russian) 'westerners', 19th century distinctions in Russian culture (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 
 
 
 
 
 

ODIP: The Online Dictionary of Intercultural Philosophy

© 2012 by the authors

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