Concepts Schools and Movements Philosophers Books
Aadhaara (Indian), a-spatial location (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come
Aida [ajidə] (Japanese). Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro (1889–1960) interpreted human beings as determined not by the solipsistic structure of the modern cogito but by a “betweenness” that he called aidagara (by T. Botz-Bornstein). More. See also mesologics, mesology
African Science. The theory of African Science has been undergoing systematization by the Calabar School of Philosophy (by J. Chimakonam). More
All-Unity, Всеединство, vseyedinstvo (Russian). Thoughts about All-Unity, often discussed in proximity with the quest for harmony of faith and reason, are not simply philosophical protests against the ecclesiastical “egoism” of Protestants who are said to affirm a “multitude without unity,” but most often represent direct attempts to overcome the entire intellectual machine of Western metaphysics by Eastern Orthodox means (by T. Botz-Bornstein). More
Aksara (Indian), "unwavering" (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come
Alitheia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Analytic and Continental Philosophy. The difference between continental and analytic philosophy can appear obvious when looking from afar. This difference can however become blurred as the topic is approached more closely. (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein) More
Arigatai (Japanese), (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come
Awai (Japanese), (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come
Backwardness (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come
Bahm, Archie, American Philosopher [1907-1996]. Bahm was the author of 21 booksand countless articles, on a wide range of topics, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Yoga, world religions, value theory , axiology, epistemology, metaphysics, existentialism, comparative philosophy, Marxism, the nature of philosophy, ecology, teaching methods, the plight of indigenous peoples, and applied philosophy (by Richard McDonough) More
Bakhtin, Mikhail [and Intercultural Philosophy] (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come
Bakhtin, Mikhail: The Dialogic Imagination (1930) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come
Basho 場所 (Japanese). Central philosophical term developed by Nishida Kitarô (1870-1945). Literally, basho means “place.” Nishida’s basho is a kind of “negative space” in which things do not simply “exist” but in which they are “local”, i.e. in which they “are” in a concrete way (by Thorsten Botz Bornstein). More
Basho no ronri, 場所の論理 (The Logic of Place) is a fundamental theme in the philosophy of Nishida Kitaro (by Augustin Berque). More
Bhaava (Indian), punctual form (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come
Blaga, Lucian, Romanian philosopher [1895-1961] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come
Body [Japanese concept of] see shintai, shutai.
Borderlands (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska) More to come
Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986) and the “Borges Paradox” (by Richard McDonough) More
Buber, Martin: I and Though (Ich und Du, 1923) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come
Calabar School of Philosophy (Nigeria). A philosophical movement aimed at promoting intercultural philosophical inquiry. See Ibuanyidanda.
Carnivalesque (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More
Comparative Philosophy. Together with the more recent Intercultural Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy is the only philosophical branch eager to undertake a critical evaluation of World Philosophy on a comparative basis (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More
Continental and Analytic Philosophy. The difference between continental and analytic philosophy can appear obvious when looking from afar. This difference can however become blurred as the topic is approached more closely (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More
Convergence see mestorazvitie.
Cosmism, космизм (Russian). A metaphysical and religious outlook, originated in the 19th century Russia, which presents a unique blend of futuristic speculations, materialistic science, religious mysticism and esoteric practices (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Crainic, Nichifor, Romanian philosopher [1889-1972] (by Keith Hitchins). More
Critical Regionalism. The term was introduced in 1981 by the architects Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre in their article “The Grid and the Pathway” and in 1983 Kenneth Frampton authored an article on the same subject (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More
Chronos (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Cross-cultural. A term initially used in the social sciences to refer to comparative studies of cultural differences and similarities. The usage of the term has broadened to mean any study or practice involving different cultural approaches. Strictly speaking, what is cross-cultural should designate what is at the crossroad of different cultures. Useful link: Cross-Cultural Research (by Gerald Cipriani).
Cultural. What relates to culture in the sense of a particular manifestation of human achievement in the arts, languages, forms of expression (whether secular or religious), and customs of all kinds. Useful link: UNESCO. (By Gerald Cipriani). See also intercultural; cross-cultural; culturality; multicultural; transcultural; subcultural; pre-cultural; post-cultural.
Culturality [culturalité] ( by Claude-Raphaël Samama). More (in French)
Dao, 道 (Chinese). Way or the way things are; ultimate reality or the ultimate.One primary, and non-mystical, understanding of dao in classical Chinese philosophy is that the dao is the way things are, no matter how a thinker or a school of thought understands the way things are and how he or she elaborates such an understanding (by Bo Mou). More
De, 德 (Chinese). Virtue; manifestations of the dao. Generally speaking, in the Chinese tradition, the term ‘de’ means human moral virtue (by Bo Mou). More
Dharma धर्म (Indian) is derived from the root dhr, to support, to uphold, to establish (by Arianne Conty). More
Dialogue. A particular mode of relationship between human beings or between human beings and their place, which can be their natural environment, history, tradition, culture, the present world, or other communities (by Gerald Cipriani) More
Dialetical. (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come
Duric, Milos, Serbian philosopher [1892-1967] by Keith Hitchins. More to come
Dhyāna ध्यान (Indian) is a Sanskrit word translated as “meditation” or “concentration” by Jarrod Hyam More
Eastern Europe [as a philosophical concept] by Julia Sushytska. More to come
Eleftheria, Ελευθερία (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Emergentism is usually traced in the West to the 19th century British philosophers, Bain, Lewes and Mill and is traditionally understood as an alternative to reductionism (by Richard McDonough). More
Emptiness (general Asian) see Śūnyatā.
Emptiness (Japanese) see kū 空.
Emptiness (Chinese) see kōng 空.
Enylon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis. More to come
Ethnofuturism is an aesthetic movement initiated by the Finno-Ugric philosophers Uku Masing (Estonian) and the Komi national K. F. Zhakov (by Kari Sallamaa). More
Ethnophilosophy was developed in Africa in the 1960s though its origin can be traced back to a book by the Belgian missionary Placide Tempels on Bantu philosophy (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More.
Eurasianism emerged in 1921 and was based on the observations of a “dying West” and a “rising East” (by Thorsten Botz-Borsntein). More
Euthanasia, Ευθανασία (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Example. The formal qualities of the “example” lend themselves to intercultural interpretation (by Mark Keitges). More to come
Experience see jizen keiken.
Feminism (Arab). Nisā’iyyah and niswiyyah are Arabic terms for feminism. Both are nouns that derive respectively from nisā’ and niswah which mean women. (by Nesma Elsakaan) More
Feminism, Islamic. Islamic feminism is a faith-based commitment and field of research that critically engages with the Islamic tradition from a gender-egalitarian perspective. It is part of Muslim women and gender studies that have been developing over the last thirty years from within Islam. (by Nesma Elsakaan) More
Filosofia (Russian). The difference between philosophy and filosofia is roughly analogous to the difference between a scholarly symposium and a Platonic symposium: the participants in the latter not only correctly discuss ideas but “totally” give themselves over to them, with all their body, soul and mind. (by Mikhail Epstein). More
Fudo, 風土 (Japanese). In his book Fudo (1935), Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro provided an account of cultural uniqueness based on the concept of fudosei (climaticity). (by Augustin Berque). More. See also mesologics.
Han 한 (Korean), 恨 (Chinese). Han is a slippery and subtle term that, depending on context, denotes everything from "resentment" and "lamentation" to "unfulfilled desire" and "resignation" (by Hye Seung CHUNG). More
Hartshorne, Charles, American philosopher (1897-2000). Hartshorne acknowledges many philosophical influences but his strongest single influence is clearly A.N. Whitehead. Hartshorne stated that “I was already almost a Buddhist without knowing it long before I read much about Buddhism” and later added that he was “more Buddhist than some Buddhists” (by Richard McDonough). More
He, 和 (諧) (Chinese). Harmony/harmonious; peace; concord. He embodies both the ancient Chinese thinkers’ (descriptive) understanding of the fundamental structure of the universe (including the human society) and it delivers their (prescriptive) expectation for the ideal situation of the human society (harmonious brotherhood) (by Bo Mou). More
Hegel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come
Heidegger, Martin [and intercultural philosophy] (by Edward McDougall) More
Heka 𓄣𓄣 (Ancient Egyptian). It is a ritual language that followed prescribed formulae and that was uttered by someone of moral authority was said to be heka in ancient Egyptian liturgical contexts (by Kevin DeLapp). More
Herausdrehen. Heideggerian term meaning 'to twist free of', 'to extricate oneself from', 'turning forth', 'turning-out-of'' in the context of the overcoming of metaphysics (by T. Botz-Bornstein). More
Heteroglossia (according to Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More
Hila. Craftiness, cunning (Arab) (by Franck Martin). More to come
History [according to Nishida Kitaro] see rekishi.
Historical Materialism [non-Marxian] (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come
Houtondji, Paulin (Beninese philosopher). More to come
Human Rights (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come
Hutsul Mythology (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska ). More to come
Huwiyya هوية (Arab) identity, substance, essence, existence (by Ismail Lala) More
Ib 𓄣 (Ancient Egyptian) means heart-mind. It refers to an a conception of a person’s moral character (by Kevin DeLapp). More
Ibuanyidanda [Complementarity] (Igbo, African) is a philosophical movement in African founded at the University of Calabar, Nigeria. (by Innocent Asouzu). More
Iki ,粋 (Japanese) is an aesthetic notion from the late Edo époque signifying “elegance,” “dapper,” or “chic” (by T. Botz-Bornstein). More
Imaginary Logic, Воображаемая логика, voobrazhaemaja logika (Russian). Term coined by N.A. Vasil'ev in 1911. More to come
Imyaslavie, имяславие (Russian). Literally: “glorification of the name” (alternatively: “worshipping the name"); also referred to as onomatodoxy. A philosophical/religious teaching of the beginning of 20th century - associated, among others, with Losev, Lossky, Bulgakov (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Inakomislyashij, инакомыслящий (Russian) literally - the one who thinks differently, a non-conformist. Standard term for various dissidents in 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Integrative Humanism (African) see Njikoka Philosophy.
Intelligentsia (Russian). The word “intelligentsia” itself, translated from the Latin, means “speculation [umozrenie]”, “the mind’s ability to generalize and systematize ideas” (by Mikhail Epstein). More
Intercultural (by Gerald Cipriani). What involves interactions between different cultures. Intercultural perception, understanding, or interpretation can also refer to culture-specific awareness in the light of other cultures. Useful Link: Society of Intercultural Philosophy
Intercultural Philosophy see Comparative Philosophy.
Ionescu, Nae, Romanian philosopher [1888-1940] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come
Islamic Feminism see Feminism, Islamic
Jaspers, Karl [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come
Jizen-keiken, 自全経験 (Japanese) means “self-sufficient and independent experience." The term has been coined by Motora Yūjirō (by Takeshi Morisato). More
Kankyo, 環境 (Japanese) "space" (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come
Kant, Immanuel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come
Khandra, хандра (Russian). Spleen, boredom, longing. Khandra is a specifically Russian ailment, a problem of ethnic patho-psychology (by Mikhail Epstein). More
Kire, 切れ (Japanese) literally means “cut,” or “to cut off.” Kire is also strongly linked to the phenomena of iki and ma. (by T. Botz-Bornstein). More
Kolakowski, Leszek (Central Europe) (by Juliusz Iwanicki). More to come
Ksana (Indian), a-temporal duration (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come
kū 空, emptiness (Japanese). More to come
kōng 空, emptiness (Chinese). More to come
Logic of Place (Nishida) see basho no ronri
Lvov-Warsaw School (Central European) (by Jan Wolenski). More to come
Ma, 間 (Japanese), same Chinese character as aida (Japanese). Signifies “interval in time and space” suggesting the idea of a non-geometrical (felt-experienced as opposed to calculated- measured) space dependent on cultural symbolisms (by TBB). More
Maat 𓐙𓏏𓁦 (Ancient Egyptian). Truth/justice. It refers to an ancient Egyptian normative view of reality, encompassing how things had originally been ordained and also how they were to be again (by Kevin DeLapp). More
Malebranche, Nicolas: Dialogue between a Christian Philosopher and a Chinese Philosopher on the Existence and Nature of God (Entretien d'un philosophe chrétien et d'un philosophe chinois sur l'existence et la nature de dieu, 1708) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come
Mamardashvili, Merab (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska). More to come
Management, Philosophy of. Management itself can be seen as a philosophy in action. If one is to live, one is to act. If one is to act, one is to choose. Although no criterion exists to decide which is superior, to paraphrase Kurt Lewin, 'there s nothing as practical as a good philosophy' (by Jean-Etienne Joullié). More
Marcel, Gabriel: Creative Fidelity (Du refus à l'invocation, 1940) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come
Mead, Margaret. In 1983, Derek Freeman argued that Mead had romanticized Samoan culture. M. Mead and interculturality (by Richard McDonough) More
Mesologics, mesology (as opposed to ecology) is the study of milieux (of ambient worlds). The term is derived from the Greek meson (middle, centre, half, medium) (by Augustin Berque). More
Mestorazvitie, месторазвитие (Russian) “space-development” or "development-place." The geographer Petr N. Savitzky (1895-1968) introduces the term as a theoretical notion through which socio-historical components can be seen as integral parts of geographical conditions. (by TBB). More
Mir, мир (Russian) (by Andrei Zavaliy). More to come
Moby-Dick, the philosophy of. According to the microcosmic doctrine, every living organism is an image of the entire cosmos. One of the best ways to explore the true meaning of the novel is to explore its main characters (by Richard McDonough) More
Mu, 無 (Japanese) see Nothingness.
Muism, Mu-Gyo, 巫敎 (Korean) indicates Korean indigenous religion, often called Korean shamanism (by Heisook Kim). More
Multicultural (by Gerald Cipriani). A community that is multicultural is culturally diverse. Cultural multiplicity does not necessarily involve interactions or crossovers between the various cultures that constitute the community in question.
Narodnost’ (Russian) encompasses “spirit of the people,” “national character” and “folk wisdom” and is an important concept in Russian intellectual history. (Two entries by Mikhail Epstein and S. Vladiv-Glover). More
Nei-sheng-wai-wang, 內聖外王 (Chinese). Inner sageliness and outer kingliness (by Bo Mou). More
Neprotivlenie, непротивление (Russian). In Russian cultural tradition this moral category is primarily associated with Leo Tolstoy’s (1828-1910) philosophical and religious writings at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries, and the subsequent movement of the Tolstoyans. (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Nihilism, нигилизм, nigilism (Russian) is a very important concept in 19th century intellectual life, cf. Turgenev's Fathers and Sons (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Nishida Kitaro (Japanese philosopher) [and Intercultural Philosophy]. More to come
Nishida Kitaro: I and Thou (私と汝 Watakushi to Nanji, 1932) (by TBB). More
Njikoka Philosophy (African). "Integrative humanism." Njikoka philosophy is an intercultural philosophical theory whose principal proponent is Godfrey O. Ozumba. It has been developed by members of the Calabar School of Philosophy (by Jonathan O. Chimakonam). More
Nostalgia (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska). More to come
Nothingness, 無, mu (Japanese). More to come
Nothingness, 无, wu (Chinese). More to come
Nothingness [Nishida Kitaro] (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come
Nothingness [Merab Mamardashvili] (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More to come
Nowak, Leszek (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come
Ochevidnost', очевидность (Russian) Literally: “obviousness”, “something observed with one’s own eyes”, “insight”. One of the central epistemological categories in the religious philosophy of Ivan Ilyin (1883-1954), a major 20th century Russian thinker (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Organic (by TBB). Historically, the scope of philosophical reflections on the organic has been broad because the organic addresses universal and individual ways of interpreting the world order and of how people should live within that world order. The organic concerns ethics, aesthetics, and religion. More
Pan-Asianism represented a movement of Asian cooperation asking for the liberation of all occupied parts of Asia (by TBB). More
Pan-Slavism represents a mixture of nationalist and supra-nationalist elements developed by non-Russian Slavs who felt the need for cooperation. It had no link whatsoever with Great Russian aspirations (by TBB). More
Pan-Africanism. One catalyst for the rapid and widespread development of Pan-Africanism was the colonization of the continent by European powers in the late nineteenth century (by TBB, to be extended). More
Pantahikineton (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Passionarnost’, пассионарность (Russian) A central concept in the historical, ethnological and anthropological studies of Lev N. Gumilev (1912-1992), a polymath Russian thinker and a major historian of the 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Pathi (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Physiki theologia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Polylog (Franz Martin Wimmer). More to come
Polyphony (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More
Popovic, Justin, Serbian philosopher [1894-1979] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come
Post-cultural (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come
Poznan School of Methodology (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn). More to come
Pre-cultural. Beside the field of biology, the term can be used either to denote activities that took place chronologically before cultures became identifiable in the history of humanity, or else to denote any human activities that are not yet culturally recognizable (by Gerald Cipriani). More
Psyche (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Qi (ch’i) 氣. (Chinese) The term ‘qi’ in classical Chinese philosophy means a kind of vital-breath-like matter-energy that is the most fundamental ‘stuff’ of everything. Qi can be light (spirits) or dense (material things) (by Bo Mou).
Reformthinking (Indian). (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come
Reformthinking (Turkish). (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come
Rekishi [for Nishida Kitaro] 歴史 (Japanese), history (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come
Ren (jen) 仁 (Chinese). Humanity, human heartedness). The Confucian conception of ren was suggested by Confucius in the Lun-Yü and has occupied the central position in Confucian philosophy (by Bo Mou). More
Ricoeur, Paul: Oneself as Another (Soi-meme comme un autre, 1990) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come
Samobytnost', самобытность (Russian). Literally: “self-being”; the term also connotes the ideas of self-sufficiency, independence, authenticity and singularity (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Shadowplay see ying xi.
Shin-myung, 神明 (Korean) is pronounced as "shen ming" in Chinese and "shin myung" in Korean. Shin means spirit or god and myung means clear understanding (by Heisook Kim). More
Shintai, 身体 (Japanese) body (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come
Shinto (Japanese). The term ‘Shinto’ is derived from the Chinese ‘神道 (shen dao)’, meaning ‘The Way of the Gods (kami)’, originally used to distinguish Shinto from Buddhism (by Edward McDougall). More
Shugo, 主語 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come
Shukan, 主観 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come
Shutai, 主体 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come
Slavyanofilstvo, славянофильство, Slavophilism (Russian). Also referred to as slavofilia (from Greek “love of Slavs”) (by Andrei Zavaliy and TBB). More
Sobornost’ (Russian). The untranslatable term can be rendered into English as “conciliarity” supposed to balance the relationship between authority and freedom (by TBB). More
Soku, 即 (Japanese), is/is not (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come
Solidarity (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come
Spengler, Oswald (German historian and philosopher). In his is his Decline of the West Spengler argues that the West has exhausted its creative energies. The central idea of Decline of the West is that each culture is like an organism animated by a fundamental “world-feeling” (of how the world fundamentally is) that gets expressed in all of its cultural products (by Richard McDonough). More
Subcultural, Subcultural practices, values, and perceptions are defined with regard to what is considered to be mainstream culture. A subcultural group is very often thought to be below, borderline, abnormal, or eccentric by the dominant culture (by Gerald Cipriani).
Śūnyatā (शून्यता), emptiness, voidness, vacuity, spaciousness (by Arianne Conty). More
Svoboda, свобода (Russian). Literally: "Freedom." See volya.
Svoevolie, своеволие (Russian). Literally: “showing or imposing one’s own will”, “obstinacy” (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Thermogonon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
Tian-ren-he-yi, 天人合一 (Chinese). Unity of heaven and the human (by Bo Mou). More
Timaeus (Plato) Plato’s view that the cosmos is the perfect animal contrasts with the alternative organic worldview in some Asian and native American cosmogonies that take the plant as the cosmic organism (by Richard McDonough). More
Todorov, Tzvetan [and Intercultural Philosophy] (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come
Todorov, Tzvetan: On Human Diversity: Nationalism, Racism, and Exotism in French Thought (Nous et les autres, La reflexion française sur la diversité humaine, 1989) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come
Transcultural. A term used to denote practices, values, and perceptions that go across or beyond established cultural boundaries and identities. A transcultural vision may seek common grounds between cultural particularities and differences. Transculturalism is more than the arbitrary combination of several cultures but it can be defined as "seeing oneself in the other" (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More
Trairism, Romanian variant of existentialism (by Keith Hitchins). More to come
Vocabulaire européen des philosophies : Dictionnaire des intraduisibles (editor: Barbara Cassin) (by TBB) More
Volya, воля (Russian). Literally: "freedom," "liberty" (by Andrei Zavaliy). More
Voobrazhaemaja logika, Воображаемая логика (Russian) see Imaginary Logic.
Vseyedinstvo see All-Unity.
Watsuji, Testsuro see fudo, mesologics.
Wen, 文 (Chinese) is an untranslatable term meaning “pattern,” “structure,” “writing,” and “literature” (by TBB). More
World Philosophy. Many of us know the names of the classics of some faraway countries and some of us have even read them (by TBB). More
Wu, 無, 无 (Chinese) see Nothingness.
Wu-wei, 無為. (Chinese) Non-action. A seemingly paradoxical slogan in Lao Zi’s Dao-De-Jing the literal sense of which is non-action (by Bo Mou). More
Yanev, Yanko, Bulgarian philosopher [1900-1944] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come
Ying-xi, 影戏 (Chinese). Central concept in Chinese film studies through which the Chinese understand film (by TBB). More
Yin-yang, 陰陽 (Chinese). In its broad sense, the term ‘yin-yang’ means the unity of two mutually-opposed but correlative and complementary forces existing within anything in the universe (by Bo Mou). More
Yli (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come
You, 有 versus wu, 無, 无 (Chinese). Being versus non-being (by Bo Mou). More
Yu, 有 (Japanese), Being (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come
Zapadnichestvo, западничество (Russian) 'westerners', 19th century distinctions in Russian culture (by Andrei Zavaliy). More